This website presents the attribution for two types of neglected or often misinterpreted coins of Cleopatra and Caesarion. These bronze coins, described in Part 1, were correctly attributed by J. N. Svoronos in his discussion volume of "Coins of the Ptolemaic Empire", published in 1908. He assigned them to Cyprus and to Cleopatra after the birth of her son (and co-regent) Caesarion in 47 B.C. The method of attribution used by Svoronos is presented in Part 2.
However, Svoronos had previously (in 1904) published his catalog and plates as the initial volumes of his work and, in these early volumes, the coins were incorrectly presented as coins of Ptolemy XII, Cleopatra’s father.
Although, as shown in Part 3, Svoronos corrected himself, he neglected to refer to the errors in his 1904 catalog (and plate listings) that give an attribution of these coins to Ptolemy XII. In the catalog and plates, Svoronos also incorrectly assigned silver tetradrachms to Ptolemy XII that were later correctly assigned to Cleopatra. This erroneous attribution of the tetradrachms then led to the erroneous attribution of the bronze coins.
The correction by K. Regling of Svoronos' errors regarding the tetradrachms occurred in 1906 (see Regling's method and results described in Part 4). Regling's correct attribution to Cleopatra was readily accepted by Svoronos. There has since been no confusion with the assignment of the tetradrachms.
The bronze coins shown above, however, have often been overlooked in catalogs and reviews of Ptolemaic coins. Inconsistent attributions have been given (see Part 3) and, most frequently, attributions to Ptolemy XII have occurred. It is likely that Svoronos' incorrect 1904 catalog and plates have been consulted without knowledge of his 1908 correction. Certainly Svoronos' correct assignment of the bronze coins to Cleopatra is not well known.
Svoronos' method, evidence and conclusions that resulted in the attribution of these coins to Cleopatra are reviewed in this website, and the results have now been accepted for publication in Supplement 3 of Roman Provincial Coinage (see Part 5).
Further background and evidence in support of Svoronos' attributions are given in a manuscript available through this website. Other information regarding these bronze coins, together with references to historical events related to the coins, is also given in the manuscript.
A review of the significance of the two-eagle reverse type present on the above coins, is available at -
To read, download, or print the manuscript entitled -
Cypriot Bronze Coins of Cleopatra with Caesarion;
Two Eagles on Ptolemaic Coins as Representations of Co-Regency
For a one page abstract of the manuscript -
click (in English and French)